Trong kiếp hiện tại này con đang trả giá xứng đáng cho ác nghiệp đã tạo trong kiếp đó. Con đã bị chia rẽ và bị phán xét. Con đã bị chồng và nhà chồng mỉa mai và nạt nộ nghiêm trọng. Con phải khổ sở cùng với các con của con như những kẻ bị ruồng bỏ không ai muốn giúp đỡ.
As we have seen throughout the thesis, Buddhist analysis do not serve the purpose of metaphysical enquiries, but rather for a better understanding of human natures through empirical observations. The analytical and synthetic methods applied in Buddhist path is to help to get beyond ordinary perceptions which only reveal the ‘veiled reality’.
Noble Lady, it is said the path to the cessation of the fabricated self, to what did the Blessed One say, the path to the cessation of that self? Friend, Visākha, the Blessed One declared the Noble Eightfold path, it is the path, for the cessation of the fabricated self: namely, right view, right thoughts, right speech, right actions, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.
Buddhism stands unique in the history of human thought in denying the existence of such a reparative soul, self or ātman. According to the teaching of the Buddha, the idea of self is an imaginary false belief which has no corresponding reality and produces harmful thoughts of “me” and “mine”, selfish desire, craving, attachment, hatred, ill will, conceit, pride, egoism, and other defilements, impurities and problems.
In this chapter we will mainly discuss the five khandhas as the components of personality in relation to the Paṭiccasamupāda as the first Noble Truth (dukkha sacca) and the second Noble Truth (samudaya sacca) which is identical with kāmataṇhā, bhavataṇhā, and vibhavataṇhā mentioned elsewhere as the three principal causes of the truth of suffering.
Thus far we have not shown a close connection between dukkha and atta. As we have qualified the word dukkha as a sense of unsatisfactoriness, insufficiency, insecurity, humiliation and distress in the introductory chapter, here the word atta should be understood as the ego-consciousness (Freudians) and self-centered attitude or self-identification.
We can not understand properly what is really meant by Buddhist Anatta if we isolate the concept from the Indian philosophical milieu, especially at the time of the emergence of Buddhism and its early development as a sect among many other systems of beliefs.
Students of Buddhism often feel confused by the two seemingly contradictory concepts that are anatta or not-self orientation, and kamma and rebirth in samsāra. If there is no-self, as the Buddha postulated, who or what takes rebirth?
Breathing in with deep inspirations from the Buddha-Dhamma and breathing out with deep gratitude to many Dhamma teachers, I write this acknowledgement to all my helpers who directly or indirectly have encouraged and assisted me and who have guided me on the right path. My deep gratitude goes to my Preceptor, Ven. Vien Minh (Puṇṇavijja Mahāthera) who introduces a pristine form of Buddhism to me and who teaches me to go beyond sectarian prejudices.
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